Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. The total area for Jeju Island is 1,848 , and the coastal area whose elevation above the sea level is less than 200 m covering 55.3% of the island’s total area. Second, especially on the top of Hallasan Mountain at subzero temperatures, radar reflectivity data were also classified into either snowfall or mixed. The threshold values were also found to be all within the overlapping zone of confidence intervals of Z-R and Z-S relationships. As an example, Figure 8 shows the mapping results from 22:00 December 15 to 02:40 December 16, 2015. By changing the threshold value of the radar reflectivity, the average accuracy of rainfall and snowfall predictions as well as their difference was calculated. It is obvious that the accuracy of the rainfall prediction increases as the threshold value decreases. This proposed method was applied to radar reflectivity data collected during November 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015, and the results indicate that the method considering both the radar and rain gauge information was satisfactory. USGS 212304157542201 771.9 N Halawa Rain Gage nr Honolulu, Oahu, HI Available data for this site SUMMARY OF ALL AVAILABLE DATA Location map Time-series: Current/Historical Observations Time-series: Daily data Water-Year Summary Revisions PDF packet now additionally includes an Oahu Beaches Map. Following the same procedure, this study determined the threshold value for each elevation zone from November to April, when the snowfall is observed in the mountain area of Jeju Island. Within each group the gauges are listed with the northernmost (southernmost) on the left-hand (right hand) side. Theoretically, both the rainfall and snowfall can happen if the radar reflectivity is within this range. Higher elevation zones were classified as the snowy zone, but some low elevation zones were also classified as the snowy zones even when the temperature was rather high. Answer 1 of 10: Hi everyone, we will be in oahu next week, and see that rain is forecasted ALL week long. Access to hydrometeorological data relayed via the NESDIS-GOES Data Collection System. Accumulated rainfall (mm) from 0800 to 1800 HST 2 Apr 2006 measured by Oahu rain gauges (blue) and simulated by WRF at the corresponding gauge location (red). Even though this is a case study over Jeju Island, Korea, the same methodology may be applied anywhere with a similar environment. There are two main roads in Jeju Island: one is the beltway along the sea shore and the other an expressway that connects two big cities, Jeju City and Seogwipo City, in Jeju Island. 2. This figure shows that the threshold values that were determined monthly were more or less the same at most elevation zones except for the elevation zone of 250∼500 m. Even in the elevation zone of 250∼500 m, the threshold value remained similarly from November to February, but it increased a bit from March. Obviously, the variable threshold method showed a superior performance to classify the rainfall and snowfall. Comparison of probability density functions for rainfall and snowfall data over the elevation zone of 250∼500 m. Monthly variation of the threshold radar reflectivity value (○) and its accuracy (□) for each elevation zone (the zonal-average threshold value and fixed threshold value (30 dBZ) are also given for the comparison): (a) 1,750 m; (b) 1,500 m; (c) 1,000 m; (d) 500 m; (e) 250 m. Mapping result of the snowy region by applying the fixed threshold method (from 22:00 December 15 to 02:40 December 16, 2015). As a first step, this study analyzed the Z-R and Z-S relationships to derive a fixed threshold of radar reflectivity to separate snowfall from rainfall, and, in the second step, this study additionally considered the observed rain rate information to implement the problem of using the fixed threshold. In this table, has the relation with Z such as . Also, the guideline from the Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA) shows that the precipitation is assumed to be snowfall if the temperature is lower than 1.2°C . However, as the snowline varies so widely in both space and time, it is not easy to separate the snowfall from rainfall simply by analyzing the radar reflectivity value. As can be seen in Figure 6, the mean of the radar reflectivity for the rainfall was 26.1 dBZ and that, for the snowfall case, was 41.8 dBZ. Mahalo! Between the two thresholds was assumed to be the zone of the mixed rainfall and snowfall. By applying this fixed threshold value, the accuracy deteriorates slightly, as shown in Figure 7. This study used the concept of a confidence interval to summarize the Z-R relationships and Z-S relationships. Even though Hallasan Mountain has a height of just 1,950 m, the temperature during the winter decreases below −20 degrees Celsius. With a height of 1,950 m, Hallasan Mountain is known to have a strong orographic precipitation. Includes most major attractions, all major routes, airports, and a chart with Oahu & Honolulu estimated driving times. We should point out that even in the wettest locations on Oahu (on the East Coast along the Koolau Range), rain is hit and miss. Shoothill GaugeMap is an interactive map and alerting service with the latest river level data from over 2,400 Environment Agency, SEPA and OPW river level gauges in England and Wales. This map is meant to be an approximate depiction of the areas that have had rain over the 3 hour period ending at 2, 5, 8 and 11, am and pm. Lots of visitors have asked we put a few Oahu Maps online - and now we have. Simply plotting the Z-R relationships and Z-S relationships collected in this study produces Figure 2. However, the application of this threshold value did not show any satisfactory results. This study proposes a method of using both the radar and rain gauge information to map the snowy region in Jeju Island, including Hallasan Mountain. As the snowfall did not accumulate in the low elevation zone (the atmospheric temperature is generally above zero), the result could not be confirmed based on the snowfall measurements at four locations located in the low elevation zone of 0 to 250 m. However, Figure 8 shows that the snowy region occurred rather randomly over the Jeju Island, which is also inconsistent with the atmospheric temperature. Near the low bound of this range, it is more like the rainfall, and near the upper bound of this range, it is more like the snowfall. Table 1 introduces some Z-R relationships collected from past studies and reports worldwide. Waialeale, receives a scant 20 inches per year! Since both the average accuracy and the difference in the accuracy between the rainfall and snowfall prediction were important, this study determined the threshold value to be 33 dBZ. This range of temperature corresponds to the elevation difference around 500 m. In case the prediction of snowline much matters such as in Jeju Island, the temperature information may not be a sufficient indicator. -Filesize is 2.2 MB as a print-ready PDF document. Map of Oahu hikes. The maps represent the best estimates of the rainfall for a 30-yr period (1978 to 2007). The behavior of snowfall in space is random, and also the mapping result lacks the physical consistency with the atmospheric temperature. In this example, the snowfall approached from the west or northwest to Jeju Island, which also scattered snowfall mostly on the rising limb of Hallasan Mountain. Using the data set developed for the Rainfall Atlas, a set of monthly maps was generated from 1920 to 2007 to allow analyses of year-to-year variations (Frazier 2012). As can be seen in a comparison of these two confidence intervals, Z for S is distinctly higher than that for R. However, it is also true that these two confidence intervals overlap a bit to make a separation of snowfall from rainfall become very complicated. For example, the Z-R relationships between the radar reflectivity (Z) and rain rate (R, mm/hr) are , , , etc. Thus, the average accuracy should be determined somewhere in between the low and high threshold values, which was around 33∼35 dBZ in this case. Jeju Island is a volcanic island composed of about 360 small-scale volcanoes and volcanic cones . The difference between the two may give us an idea of separating the snowfall from rainfall. In 1990, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) started to introduce automated weather stations (AWSs) in Jeju Island . Printed on waterproof, rip-proof plastic. Interactive weather map allows you to pan and zoom to get unmatched weather details in your local neighborhood or half a world away from The Weather Channel and Weather.com To determine the snowline, snowfall ratios of 10% and 90% were considered in this study (Figure 12). Rain gauges in the mountainous area can measure snowfall according to water depth, but it is not easy to distinguish snowfall from rainfall. However, the difference in the accuracy between the rainfall and snowfall prediction was the smallest at a threshold value of 33 dBZ, which increased rather highly as the threshold value increased. The locations of the rain gauges are shown in Figure 4. Oahu map by Katherine Baxter. Also, the thin wiggly line represents the air temperature measured at each elevation, which is moving around the reference temperature 0°C (i.e., the horizontal line at each elevation). From both the Gosan and Seongsan radars, a total of eight radar reflectivity fields were prepared from an elevation of 250 m to 2,000 m in intervals of 250 m. That is, from each radar, 0.25 km CAPPI, 0.50 km CAPPI, 0.75 km CAPPI, 1.00 km CAPPI, 1.50 km CAPPI, 1.75 km CAPPI, and 2.00 km CAPPI data were prepared. Figure 3 shows Jeju Island and its administrative districts. These two parameters are known to vary so widely regionally and depending on storm types. Mapping the snowy region is very important in our daily lives. Honolulu is lined with sandy Hawaiian beaches and turquoise waters but make no mistake, the city is a buzzing urban metropolis. All the rain gauges in Jeju Island are equipped with a melting device for snow and thus can measure the snowfall by units of rain rate. If adding the area for the mixed rainfall and snowfall, the snowy region becomes much larger than that in the previous case. This work was supported by the “Basic Science Research Program,” through the National Research Foundation of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1A09918155), and the Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI) of the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) through “Advanced Water Management Research Program” (79615). Updated Oahu Travel Map Packet . The results are summarized in Figure 7. Change of the snowline (shaded area) over Jeju Island from November 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015, determined by applying the variable threshold method ((a) snow coverage 10% or higher; (b) snow coverage 90% or higher). These kinds of maps are best explored from a computer! For the case of using only the radar information, the threshold value of the radar reflectivity was determined to be 33 dBZ. The snowline in this case indicates the lowest elevation where snow is observed. 22.186111 -159.399722 :kueh1/puu kaele reservoir near kilauea 21.072778 -156.950833 … The radar reflectivity is proportional to the rain rate (=rainfall depth/duration) or snow rate (=snowfall depth/duration). Next, this study attempted to map the snowy region with a fixed threshold of the radar reflectivity value of 30 dBZ to the radar reflectivity data measured over Jeju Island from November 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015. Third, the behavior of a snow storm, i.e., directional property of the snowfall movement, could be clearly identified. In between the two thresholds, a zone of the mixed rainfall and snowfall was assumed. First, in this study, the threshold values were estimated again using the observed radar and rain gauge data by additionally considering the rain rate (or the snow rate). Your Oahu Guide; Vagobond Travel Videos; Vagobond Podcast Adventures; About Vagobond; Home; 5 Rainforest Hikes Near Honolulu, Hawaii on Oahu. 2019, Article ID 3572431, 13 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3572431, 1Research Assistant Professor, School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-705, Republic of Korea, 2Professor, School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-705, Republic of Korea. Guide of Hawaii, LLC is a privately-owned (non-government) business. near kahana 21.519167 -157.948056 :knfh1/north fork kaukonahua stream above rb 21.638889 -158.057500 :knnh1/kamananui stream at manawai 21.470278 -157.961111 :kpph1/kipapa stream near wahiawa oahu hi 21.492222 -157.998333 :ksfh1/south fork kaukonahua stream at east pump res. Jeju Island is located in the southernmost region of the Korean Peninsula. Recent Charts Archive: View Sorted Precipitation Observations Please note: Data displayed on these charts are not fully quality-controlled. Overall, it is true that the mapping result contains lots of uncertainty. See search results for this author. Similar to the Z-R relationship to estimate the radar rain rate from the radar reflectivity, the so-called Z-S relationship is used to estimate the radar snow rate . 2021 Hawaii Travel Guide. One minute it may be raining, and the next the sun is back out - usually along with a beautiful rainbow! It appears that this Reference Map for Oahu is a good one. 95% confidence intervals derived for the (a). Station Number Station name Date/Time Precipitation in inches during the previous 1 hour 24 hours 7 days ; Hawaii County Jeju Island, which is located in the southernmost part of the Korean Peninsula, is likely the only place where both rainfalls in the plain coastal area and the snowfall in mountainous areas can be observed at the same time. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Honolulu Weather Forecasts. Franko's Oahu Guide Map, With Things to See and Do is a guide and a map of the island of Oahu all in one! Copyright © 2019 Jung Mo Ku and Chulsang Yoo. Fortunately, two radars (Seongsan and Gosan radars) operate on Jeju Island, which fully covers Hallasan Mountain. Manao valley is located about 20 minutes from Waikiki, drive towards paradise park and you will see the real rain forest here. Oahu's Top Hotels, Resorts, B&Bs, & Vacation Rentals, Oahu's Best Tours, Excursions, & Adventures. These links do not cost you anything and help provide the necessary funding to maintain this website. In some places it rains, but in other places, maybe in high-elevation areas, it can snow. A. Smith and W. F. Krajewski, “Estimation of the mean field bias of radar rainfall estimates,”, D.-J. Change of the snow coverage over Jeju Island from November 1, 2014, to February 25, 2015, determined by applying the variable threshold method. *Added October, 2018: Rainfall Trend Maps from 1920-2012 & 1983-2012. The radar reflectivity data were collected for the winter period from the year 2007 to 2016. The result shows that the snowy mountain top can be seen from December to the beginning of March in Jeju Island. * Hawaii-Guide.com is not a booking agent, accommodation provider, establishment, or tour operator. This study proposes a method of using both the radar and rain gauge information to map the snowy region in Jeju Island, including Hallasan Mountain. Download your FREE copy of our... Find all the books, read about the author, and more. © Copyright 2021 — Guide of US, LLC. Accurately predicting the snowline is thus important, especially where the rainfall and snowfall simultaneously occur. The second case was added to estimate the number of days when the snow-covered Hallasan Mountain could be seen. On the contrary, the range of parameter A of the Z-S relationship is 160∼3,300 and that for the parameter b is 1.09∼2.21; that is, the ranges of parameter A are very different, but those of parameter b are similar to each other. Their standard deviations were similar at 5.6 dBZ and 6.6 dBZ, respectively. Crediting the Source. Among them, 16 rain gauges are located in the coastal area with an elevation of less than 250 m, four in between 250 and 500 m, two in between 750 and 1,000 m, one in between 1,250 and 1,500 m, and one at 1,500 m or higher. Published on: 08-20-2020 Published by: John C. Derrick. In this figure, the red colour indicates the snowfall and grey colour indicates rainfall. Seongsan radar is also an S-band radar, and both radars possess an observation radius of 240 × 240 km and a resolution of 1 × 1 km. Here the Gaussian distribution was assumed since the dBZ unit was used for the radar reflectivity [25–27]. In the second section, the Z-R and Z-S relationships are reviewed to derive their difference. Jung Mo Ku, Chulsang Yoo, "Combination of Radar and Rain Gauge Information to Map the Snowy Region in Jeju Island, Korea: A Case Study", Advances in Meteorology, vol. However, in this study, the confidence interval was derived for the entire range of the radar reflectivity as a function of R or S. The radar reflectivity Z for a given R or S was assumed to follow the Gaussian distribution. However, the intercept, which is related to parameter A, is found to be very different from each other. This manuscript is composed of a total of five sections, including Introduction and Conclusions. A total of 21 AWSs data were used in Jeju Island during the same period. Updated with a new high-resolution map of Oahu. 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