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what continent is the middle east

China, Japan, Korea, etc.). The MENA region is in the middle of a digital transformation, which 2020 and COVID-19 has only accelerated. The government of any particular country, no matter what "continent" they live on determines the quality of life for the people. Among other migrant populations are Chinese, Filipinos, Indians, Indonesians, Pakistanis, Pashtuns, Romani, and Afro-Arabs. Pakistan is an extremely diverse country. [29] Additionally, the Mongols would come to dominate the region, the Kingdom of Armenia would incorporate parts of the region to their domain, the Seljuks would rule the region and spread Turko-Persian culture, and the Franks would found the Crusader states that would stand for roughly two centuries. San Marino33,400 Moreover, as Louise Fawcett argues, among many important areas of contention, or perhaps more accurately of anxiety, were, first, the desires of the superpowers to gain strategic advantage in the region, second, the fact that the region contained some two-thirds of the world's oil reserves in a context where oil was becoming increasingly vital to the economy of the Western world [...][31] Within this contextual framework, the United States sought to divert the Arab world from Soviet influence. Naval force has the quality of mobility which carries with it the privilege of temporary absences; but it needs to find on every scene of operation established bases of refit, of supply, and in case of disaster, of security. Because of the arid climate and heavy reliance on the fossil fuel industry, the Middle East is both a heavy contributor to climate change and a region expected to be severely negatively impacted by it. [50][51], Recognised by the United Nations, The World Bank and the World Health Organisation as one of the greatest global challenges in the 21st century, climate change is currently having an unprecedented effect upon the Earth's natural systems. Pakistan is bordered by several Asian countries including Afghanistan, China, Iran, and Oman, and is narrowly separated from Tajikistan by the Wakhan Corridor. The term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. However, the usage "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology and ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East, which is not used by these disciplines (see Ancient Near East). The smallest nation in the Middle East is Bahrain which occupies an area of about 257 sq miles. The Middle East is a region in western Asia and north-eastern Africa. Learn more about the history of the classification of the region in this article. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of East Asia (e.g. Russian is spoken by a large portion of the Israeli population, because of emigration in the late 1990s. [10][11] He labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, and said that after Egypt's Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards British India. In recent years, however, countries such as the UAE, Bahrain, and Jordan have begun attracting greater numbers of tourists because of improving tourist facilities and the relaxing of tourism-related restrictive policies. [55] If greenhouse gas emissions are not significantly reduced, part of the MENA region risks becoming uninhabitable before the year 2100. [note 2][39][40]. The five major bodies of water that surround the region are the Caspian Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. From the 4th century CE onwards, the Middle East became the center of the two main powers at the time, the Byzantine empire and the Sassanid Empire. Other Western Iranic languages spoken in the region include Achomi, Daylami, Kurdish dialects, Semmani, Lurish, amongst many others. Perhaps because of the influence of the Western press, the Arabic equivalent of Middle East (Arabic: الشرق الأوسط ash-Sharq al-Awsaṭ) has become standard usage in the mainstream Arabic press, comprising the same meaning as the term "Middle East" in North American and Western European usage. The region is best known for oil production and export, which significantly impacts the entire region through the wealth it generates and through labor utilization. Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, the region has experienced both periods of relative peace and tolerance and periods of conflict particularly between Sunnis and Shiites. Is There a Place Called 'the Middle East'? It occupies about 900,000 sq miles of the Arabian Peninsula encompasses parts of Oman, Iraq, Jordan, and Yemen. The Middle East has numerous mountain ranges with some of the tallest peaks being over 18,000 ft above sea level. Circassian is also spoken by the diaspora in the region and by almost all Circassians in Israel who speak Hebrew and English as well. It covers an area of approximately 340,509 square miles, almost the combined size of the UK and France. From the 16th century onward, the Middle East came to be dominated, once again, by two main powers: the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid dynasty. They were supplanted in some part by the rising influence of the United States from the 1970s onwards. The region is one of the regions were agriculture was independently discovered, and from the Middle East it was spread, during the Neolithic, to different regions of the world such as Europe, the Indus Valley and Eastern Africa. [34][35] It is also commonly taught and used as a second language, especially among the middle and upper classes, in countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Iran, Kurdistan, Iraq, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. The total regional unemployment rate in 2005, according to the International Labour Organization, was 13.2%,[44] and among youth is as high as 25%,[45] up to 37% in Morocco and 73% in Syria. The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis. The Middle East Region. Millions of people throughout the Middle East and North Africa are united in their demand for change. [citation needed] Large numbers of Kurds, Jews, Assyrians, Greeks and Armenians as well as many Mandeans have left nations such as Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey for these reasons during the last century. Josiah Russell estimates the population of what he calls "Islamic territory" as roughly 12.5 million in 1000 – Anatolia 8 million, Syria 2 million, and Egypt 1.5 million. Rub’ Al Khali Desert is the largest desert in the world, and it covers a huge part of Oman, United Arab Emirates, South Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Ismael, Jacqueline S., Tareq Y. Ismael, and Glenn Perry. Trump has used his relationship with Middle Eastern dictators to secure the release of some Americans abroad who had languished in the region’s … It extends for about 1,000 miles from the Iran Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea and 2,000 miles from the Arabian Sea to the Black Sea. GRAPHIC: Asia’s crude oil imports from the Middle East vs the. [52][53][54] Sharp global temperature and sea level changes, shifting precipitation patterns and increased frequency of extreme weather events are some of the main impacts of climate change as identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It's not even an agreed-upon term by the countries that constitute it. The region covers part of North Africa, but is situated mainly in Southwest Asia. Some times, political and … Best Places to Live in Middle East. Arabic dialects are also spoken in some adjacent areas in neighbouring Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. There are also important minority religions like the Baháʼí Faith, Yarsanism, Yazidism, Zoroastrianism, Mandaeism, Druze, and Shabakism, and in ancient times the region was home to Mesopotamian religions, Canaanite religions, Manichaeism, Mithraism and various monotheist gnostic sects. Islam is the largest religion in the Middle East, but other faiths that originated there, such as Judaism and Christianity, are also well represented. The volcanic peak of Caucasus Mountains exceeds 15,000 ft with its highest point being about 18,481ft high. The modern Middle East began after World War I, when the Ottoman Empire, which was allied with the Central Powers, was defeated by the British Empire and their allies and partitioned into a number of separate nations, initially under British and French Mandates. However, it would be the later Islamic Caliphates of the Middle Ages, or Islamic Golden Age which began with the Islamic conquest of the region in the 7th century AD, that would first unify the entire Middle East as a distinct region and create the dominant Islamic Arab ethnic identity that largely (but not exclusively) persists today. [41] Regarding nominal GDP per capita, the highest ranking countries are Qatar ($93,204), the UAE ($55,028), Kuwait ($45,920) and Cyprus ($32,745). In Iran, many religious minorities such as Christians, Baháʼís and Zoroastrians have left since the Islamic Revolution of 1979. The western border of the Middle East is defined by the Mediterranean Sea, where Israel, Lebanon, and Syria rest opposite from Greece and Italy in Europe. Other mountain ranges found on the border between Saudi Arabia and the Red Sea includes the Hejaz and Asir mountains. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East (as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. Egypt in Africa also borders the Mediterranean and is sometimes considered as part of the Middle East, while Turkey and Cyprus literall… In 2009 Arab countries received a total of US$35.1 billion in remittance in-flows and remittances sent to Jordan, Egypt and Lebanon from other Arab countries are 40 to 190 per cent higher than trade revenues between these and other Arab countries. I asked five experts to share the tech trends they see influencing the Middle East … Around one third of Africa is located in the Southern Hemisphere. During the twentieth century, the region’s vast crude oil stock helped boost the economy of these nations. It is divided into three main geographical regions; th… Africa makes up about 20% of the world’s total land area. However, some languages do have "Middle East" equivalents, such as the French Moyen-Orient, Swedish Mellanöstern, Spanish Oriente Medio or Medio Oriente, and the Italian Medio Oriente. Native ethnic groups of the region include, in addition to Arabs, Arameans, Assyrians, Baloch, Berbers, Copts, Druze, Greek Cypriots, Jews, Kurds, Lurs, Mandaeans, Persians, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In German the term Naher Osten (Near East) is still in common use (nowadays the term Mittlerer Osten is more and more common in press texts translated from English sources, albeit having a distinct meaning) and in Russian Ближний Восток or Blizhniy Vostok, Bulgarian Близкия Изток, Polish Bliski Wschód or Croatian Bliski istok (meaning Near East in all the four Slavic languages) remains as the only appropriate term for the region. The term was created by British military strategists in the 19th century, and definitions of the Middle East vary; it is not simply a geographical term, but also a political one, connoting that it separates Europe ("the West") from the Far East. Let’s go through the story of continents and how countries are divided along geographical and political borders. Arabs constitute the largest ethnic group in the Middle East, followed by various Iranian peoples and then by Turkic speaking groups (Turkish, Azeris, and Iraqi Turkmen). "The Middle East, in whose world? [43] When it comes to per capita (PPP)-based income, the highest-ranking countries are Qatar ($86,008), Kuwait ($39,915), the UAE ($38,894), Bahrain ($34,662) and Cyprus ($29,853). It is the birthplace and spiritual center of religions such as Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Manichaeism, Yezidi, Druze, Yarsan and Mandeanism, and in Iran, Mithraism, Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism, and the Baháʼí Faith. Other defining events in this transformation included the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the eventual departure of European powers, notably Britain and France by the end of the 1960s. The designation, Mashriq, also from the Arabic root for East, also denotes a variously defined region around the Levant, the eastern part of the Arabic-speaking world (as opposed to the Maghreb, the western part). Besides the political reasons there was also the "ideological conflict" between the two systems. Nigeria is the most populous country and Vatican City would is the least populous country in the region. Today, the region of the Near East is imprecise and overlaps with the Middle East. Persian and Kurdish belong to the Indo-European language family. The Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous. Ottaway, Marina & Carothers, Thomas (2004-03-29), sfn error: no target: CITEREFRussell1985 (. To promote peace in the region. [8][9] During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. In neighbouring Middle Eastern countries ( 13 out of 18 ) are part of nations. Or economic alliance like the European Union in Europe, is spoken by a source a... 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