They are becoming more common in MD. Young larvae tunnel into leaves and feed in leaf mines. Older larvae feed protected in leaf rolls or folds held together by silking. 5 pp. Life cycle: Eggs are deposited on leaves in small clusters and hatch in 4-7 days. TOMATO PINWORM. Tomato pinworm, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), blotch-type mines and leaf-folding (left). Damage can be confused with that of leafminers and potato tuberworms. Biology and Morphometrics of Tomato Pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) on Tomato V ... 2017) causing severe damage to tomato in invaded areas in India. Pinworm moths lay eggs on the lower surface of bottom leaves of the tomato plant. Losses affect the farmer’s income directly due to reduction in marketable yield and indirectly through higher production costs, a consequence of increased investment in pest management. Agricultural pests and harmful fungi, viruses and bacteria can attack your crop at any time. These mines, however, are widened gradually into one large blotch (pictured below). Mature larvae abandon the host and form a loose pupal cell of sand grains near the soil surface. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae has been identified as a candidate for biological control of the South American Tomato Pinworm, Tuta absoluta. The larvae develop through 4 instars in about 10 days in summer. Fourth, learn to recognize leaf damage done by tomato pinworms in the 1st and 2nd instar. Tomato Pinworm: Keiferia lycopersicella Damage: Larvae can complete development on foliage (Figure 3) and occasionally can inflict nearly 100% defoliation; however, greatest economic damage occurs when larvae attack fruit (Figure 4). Photograph by: James Castner. Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel, Thuricide), a biological agent that kills caterpillars, can also be used as a dust or spray to kill the pinworms; bT makes the pinworm stop eatin… Where abundant, the tomato pinworm may seriously damage foliage and infest nearly 100% … Figure 5. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): • Tomato fruitworm larvae bore deeply into the fruit and will destroy about 20 % of the tomatoes in a field. Look for mine blotches under the fruit skin. Where abundant, the tomato pinworm may seriously damage foliage and infest nearly 100% of the fruit. Populations may be controlled early during the first or second larval stages with several recommended insecticides (Poe 1973); however, third or fourth instars are protected by leaf folds or fruit, making the control of older infestations difficult. Older larvae may also tunnel into fruit, causing significant damage. In states farther north, these tomato eating worms are primarily a greenhouse problem. Adults were then transferred to cages for multiplication in to-mato plants, cultivar Santa Clara. Figure 3. Photograph by David J. Schuster, University of Florida. Because adult tomato pinworms are highly mobile and can move quickly from garden to garden, encourage your neighbors to do the same. Upon emerging from leaf mines, third instar larvae fold and web leaves to protect themselves and feed from inside these shelters. These caterpillars do varying degrees of damage, and rarely threaten the life of the plant if the plant is healthy. The tomato pinworm is a small, microlepidopteran moth that is often confused with closely related species, which have similar habits. The tomato pinworm attacks both the leaves and fruits of tomato. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is an invasive pest difficult to control. The caterpillars are about 1/4 inch long and gray or pale red to purple in color. Tomato Pinworm host plants include tomato, eggplant, and potato. have been suitable hosts. Larva of the tomato pinworm, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walshingham). Elmore JC, Howland AF. Foliar feeding can cause defoliation. If fruit is cut open, a tunnel will be present throughout the fruit cavity. Solutions. Tomato pinworm, Keiferia lycopersicella (Walshingham), damage on tomatoes. Photograph by James Castner, University of Florida. Capps (1946) provided a key, with descriptions, that defines the species and permits identification of larvae with which it might be confused. At high densities, axillary buds of young stems and/or tomato fruits are also damaged (Desneux et al., 2010). Among them are the tomato horn worm, the cutworm and the tomato pinworm. Damage Done to plants by Tomato Fruitworms. Disc all plants immediately after harvest. Mining by larvae in the leaves is the most common type of injury. 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